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Rao, Pachineella Lakshmana and Gandham, Ravi Kumar and Subbiah, Madhuri (2020) Molecular evolution and genetic variations of V and W proteins derived by RNA editing in Avian Paramyxoviruses. Scientific Reports, 10 (1). ISSN 2045-2322

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The newly assigned subfamily Avulavirinae in the family Paramyxoviridae includes avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) isolated from a wide variety of avian species across the globe. Till date, 21 species of APMVs are reported and their complete genome sequences are available in GenBank. The APMV genome comprises of a single stranded, negative sense, non-segmented RNA comprising six transcriptional units (except APMV-6 with seven units) each coding for a structural protein. Additionally, by co-transcriptional RNA editing of phosphoprotein (P) gene, two mRNAs coding for accessory viral proteins, V and W, are generated along with unedited P mRNA. However, in APMV-11, the unedited mRNA codes for V protein while +2 edited mRNA translates to P protein, similar to members of subfamily Rubulavirinae in the same family. Such RNA editing in paramyxoviruses enables maximizing the coding capacity of their smaller genome. The three proteins of P gene: P, V and W, share identical N terminal but varied C terminal sequences that contribute to their unique functions. Here, we analyzed the P gene editing site, V and W sequences of all 21 APMV species known so far (55 viruses) by using bioinformatics and report their genetic variations and molecular evolution. The variations observed in the sequence and hexamer phase positions of the P gene editing sites is likely to influence the levels and relative proportions of P, V and W proteins’ expressions which could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of APMVs. The V protein sequences of APMVs had conserved motifs similar to V proteins of other paramyxoviruses including the seven cysteine residues involved in MDA5 interference, STAT1 degradation and interferon antagonism. Conversely, W protein sequences of APMVs were distinct. High sequence homology was observed in both V and W proteins between strains of the same species than between species except in APMV-3 which was the most divergent APMV species. The estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates suggested negative selection pressure on the V and W proteins within species indicating their low evolution rate. The molecular clock analysis revealed higher conservation of V protein sequence compared to W protein indicating the important role played by V protein in viral replication, pathogenesis and immune evasion. However, we speculate the genetic diversity of W proteins could impact the degree of pathogenesis, variable interferon antagonistic activity and the wide host range exhibited by APMV species. Phylogenetically, V proteins of APMVs clustered into three groups similar to the recent classification of APMVs into three new genera while no such pattern could be deciphered in the analysis of W proteins except that strains of same species grouped together. This is the first comprehensive study describing in detail the genetic variations and the molecular evolution of P gene edited, accessory viral proteins of Avian paramyxoviruses.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Animal Genetics and Genomics
Infectious Diseases
Inflammation Biology
Reproductive Biology
Genetic Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Harjit Singh
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2020 05:24
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2020 05:24
URI: http://niab.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/81

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